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2000 Annual Report 

The Air Pollution Control Program produces an annual report to provide Missouri residents 
information about the status of air quality in the state. The publication is made available here in 
electronic format. The publication is divided into chapters for quicker download. 

Cover Page (05/00) 108 KB 
Regional and Satellite Offices 
Introduction and Table of Contents (05/00) 18 KB 
Chapter 1 : 2000 Air Quality Highlights (05/00) 108 KB 
Chapter 2: Gateway Clean Air Program (05/00) 64 KB 
Chapter 3: Major Air Pollutants (05/00) 15 KB > 
Chapter 4: Clean Air Standards (05/00) 43 KB 
Chapter 5: Air Quality Monitoring Sites in Missouri (05/00) 108 KB 
Chapter 6: Missouri's Air Quality (05/00) 101 KB 
Chapter 7: Ozone in Missouri (05/00) 24 KB 
o Ozone in St. Louis (05/00) 308 KB 
o Ozone in Kansas City (05/00) 15 KB 
Chapter 8: Lead in Missouri (05/00) 333 KB 
Chapter 9: Keeping Country Air Clean (05/00) 160 KB 
Chapter 10: About The Air Pollution Control Program (05/00) 25 KB 
Chapter 1 1 : Missouri Air Conservation Commission (05/00) 99 KB 
Chapter 12: 2000 Rules Update (05/00) 30 KB 
Air Quality Information (05/00) 12 KB 
Glossary (05/00) 13 KB 



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I 




Missouri 
Department of 
Natural Resources 



P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102 
800-361 -4827 / 573-751 -481 7 
E-mail: cleanair@dnr.mo.gov 
Revised on Monday July 05 2010 



Air Pollution Control 
Program Report 2000 



Table of 
Contents 



1999 Air 

Quality Highlights 2 

Missouri Air: 

A Quarter Century 

in Retrospect 6 

Major Air 

Pollutants 8 

Health Effects 

of Air Pollution 9 

Clean Air 

Standards 10 

Air Quality 

Monitoring Sites 

in Missouri 12 

Missouri's 

Air Quality 14 

Ozone in Missouri 16 

Ozone in St. Louis 
Controlling St. Louis Ozone 
Ozone in Kansas City 



Controlling Kansas City Ozone 



Lead in Missouri 22 

PM25 in Missouri 24 

About the 

Air Pollution 

Control Program 25 

Missouri Air 
Conservation 
Commission 27 

Air Quality 

Information 30 

Air Pollution 

on the Internet 31 

Glossary 32 




He steps up to the plate, his jaw set firmly. Tens of thousands watch quietly as he 
lifts the heavy bat, waiting for that powerful swing. He takes a deep breath 
before launching the tiny sphere into orbit. CRACK! 



Missouri's air sustains us in everything we do. Whether working in a garden, 
waiting for a bus or hitting homeruns, clean air provides us life energy. The 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources' (DNR) Air Pollution Control 
Program (APCP) continues to look for new ways to improve the quality of air for 
Missouri's residents. 

As Missouri begins a new millennium, 



APCP will once again rely upon the support 
of citizens, businesses, industry and federal, 
state and local governments to keep the air 
clean for all Missouri's residents. APCP 
hopes that you will continue monitoring 
rules and legislation regarding air pollution, 
and contact us when you have questions 
and concerns. It is also important that 
citizens inform DNR of unusual odors, 
emissions or smoke. To provide clean air 
across the state, it will take an active 
involvement by all Missouri citizens. 
Through regular tune-ups, use of low- 
solvent products, composting of yard waste 
and proper disposal of waste that cannot be 
composted, each person's contribution is 




multiplied. Equally important, we must 
learn to use energy more efficiently. Energy 

consumption is directly related to most air quality problems. The more gasoline 
and electricity we use, the greater the burden we place on our air. 

Missouri's air quality has experienced a steady rate of improvement over the last 
decade. To continue this positive trend into the next millennium, Missouri will also 
have to balance the needs of the environment with the needs of industry. The state 
must examine ways to promote economic growth without compromising air 
quality, which means improvements will need to be made within existing industry. 
Missouri and the industrial community will have to work together to clean the air. 

Everyone has a stake in keeping Missouri's air clean, and everyone can 
participate in accomplishing this goal. The next time your favorite powerhouse 
hitter fills his lungs, let's make sure it's with clean Missouri air. 



As a recipient of federal funds, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources does not discriminate on the basis of 
race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has suffered 
discrimination may file a complaint with the Department of Natural Resources or with the Office of Equal 
Opportunity, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 20240. 



000 Air Quality Highlight 



Ground-Level Ozone 
in St. Louis 

Although summer 2000 had more 
days when weather conditions were 
favorable to the formation of ground- 
level ozone than in 1999, the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area had fewer 
days when ozone actually reached 
these high levels. In the entire 2000 
ozone season, only one ozone ex- 
ceedance occurred in the St. Louis 
area. This reflects a dramatic im- 
provement in St. Louis air quality 
since monitoring began in 1978, when 
126 exceedances were reported! 

The photographs at the right show St. 
Louis on both good and bad air qual- 
ity days. These pictures were taken 
by a camera maintained by the Mis- 
souri Department of Natural Re- 
sources' Environmental Sevices Pro- 
gram (ESP) from the top of the Hill 
district in St. Louis. Current photo- 
graphs are available on the depart- 
ment's Web site at www.dnr.state.mo 
.us/ deq/ esp/ esp_aqm.htm. 

Though visual air pollution is not a 
direct measure of specific air pollu- 
tants, it can give the viewer an indica- 
tion of the air quality. When weather 
conditions are favorable to the forma- 
tion of ozone, they are often also fa- 
vorable to the formation of other pol- 
lutants that limit visibility. 

St. Louis has implemented several 
control strategies in recent years to re- 
duce ground-level ozone, including 
use of a cleaner-burning reformu- 
lated gasoline. Through another pro- 
gram, Stage II vapor recovery, special 
nozzles have been placed on all area 
gasoline pumps to catch fumes dur- 
ing re-fueling. The St. Louis commu- 
nity also recently launched a new ve- 
hicle emissions inspection program, 
which is described in greater detail at 
right. 



The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program would like to thank the 
many St. Louis area residents who 
made voluntary choices to help re- 
duce ozone, such as carpooling, wait- 
ing to fill their cars up until after 5:30 
p.m. on poor air quality days, taking 
the bus and avoiding use of charcoal 
lighter fluid. For more information re- 
garding ground-level ozone in St. 
Louis, see Page 6. 

Gateway Clean Air Program 

The 2000 launch of the Gateway 
Clean Air Program headlined Mis- 
souri's efforts to bring St. Louis into 
attainment with the U.S. Environ- 
mental Protection Agency's (EPA) 
ozone regulations. The new program 
tests vehicles in the city of St. Louis 
and St. Louis, St. Charles and Jeffer- 
son counties using a new enhanced 
emissions testing procedure. For the 
first time, Franklin County also began 
vehicle emissions testing in 2000, 
using an improved basic idle emis- 
sions test. 

The Department of Natural Resources 
contracted with Environmental Sys- 
tems Products Inc. (ESP Missouri) to 
implement the Gateway Clean Air 
Program. ESP Missouri constructed 
and operates the new vehicle emis- 
sions testing facilities. The new facili- 
ties began testing vehicles in April 
2000. ESP Missouri also operates 
RapidScreen, which uses remote sens- 
ing devices to monitor exhaust emis- 
sions while vehicles are driven on 
roads and highways. RapidScreen 
enables the very cleanest-running ve- 
hicles to pass the new emissions test 
without visiting emissions testing sta- 
tions. More information on the Gate- 
way Clean Air Program is available in 
the special Gateway Clean Air Pro- 
gram section on Page 6. 



- 2 - 




Fuels 

The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources continues to develop ways 
for St. Louis and Kansas City to re- 
duce emissions of volatile organic 
compounds (VOCs) that contribute to 
the formation of ground-level ozone 
(smog). St. Louis is required to re- 
duce VOCs due to its status as an 
ozone nonattainment area, while the 
Kansas City reductions are in re- 
sponse to violations of the federal 
health-based ozone standard in 1995 
and 1997. 

Stage II Vapor Recovery has been 
shown to be one of the most effective 
means of reducing ozone violations. 
The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources has developed the Mis- 
souri Performance Evaluation Test 
Procedures (MOPETP) to ensure that 
the Stage I and II vapor recovery 
equipment used in the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area are at least 
95 percent efficient. The MOPETP is a 
comprehensive set of tests designed 
to determine the efficiency of gasoline 
vapor recovery systems and compo- 
nents. 

As of Jan. 1, 2001, only MOPETP-ap- 
proved systems and components are 
authorized for use in the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area. In addi- 
tion to reducing the release of pollu- 
tants that contribute to the formation 
of ozone, these nozzles also capture 



air toxins that customers would be 
exposed to during refueling. 

The permitting process is designed to 
ensure that vapor recovery equip- 
ment continues to function properly 
after being installed. To date, all 
gasoline dispensing facilities in the St. 
Louis ozone nonattainment area 
have applied for and received an ini- 
tial operating permit. Facilities must 
pass operating permit tests prior to 
receiving a renewed operating per- 
mit. Operating permits are renewed 
for a five-year period. 

Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) 

has been required at retail gasoline 
stations in the St. Louis ozone nonat- 
tainment area since June 1, 1999. 
Federal RFG is a gasoline formula de- 
signed to burn cleaner by adjusting 
the amount of various components 
already found in conventional gaso- 
line. RFG is required all year, not just 
during the summer. It reduces ex- 
haust emissions as well as evapora- 
tive emissions and is administered 
and enforced by the U.S. EPA. Phase 
II of the RFG program, which began 
Jan. 1, 2000, requires additional emis- 
sion reductions compared to Phase I 
RFG. Phase II RFG requires a mini- 
mum of 25 percent VOC reductions, a 
20 percent reduction in air toxics, and 
a 5 to 7 percent reduction in NOx 
emissions. Ethanol use in the St. 
Louis area has increased since the in- 
troduction of federal RFG. During 



the winter season, as much as 35 to 40 
percent of St. Louis area RFG is 
blended with ethanol. 

In 2000, low Reid Vapor Pressure 
(RVP) gasoline continued to be used 
during the summer months in the 
Kansas City ozone maintenance area. 
During summer months, low RVP 
gasoline evaporates less than conven- 
tional gasoline, which reduces emis- 
sions of VOCs. Low RVP gas was 
first required in St. Louis in 1994 and 
in Kansas City in 1997. 

On Jan. 4, 2000, the use of federal 
RFG in Kansas City was blocked by a 
U.S. Court of Appeals decision to re- 
voke the U.S. EPA's rulemaking that 
allowed former ozone nonattainment 
areas, such as Kansas City, to opt-in 
to the federal RFG program. As a re- 
sult of the court decision, an amend- 
ment to lower the Kansas City sum- 
mer RVP requirement from 7.2 
pounds per square inch (psi) to 7.0 
psi beginning June 1, 2001, was pro- 
posed in late 2000. The 7.0 psi RVP 
requirement is one of several emis- 
sion control measures necessary for 
Kansas City to maintain compliance 
with the national ozone standard. 

Ozone Transport 

Because air pollution can spread 
across geographic boundaries, initia- 
tives involving regional cooperation 
and study of air quality are becoming 
more common. In October 1998, the 



-3- 



U.S. EPA issued a rule, known as the 
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) State Im- 
plementation Plan (SIP) Call. This 
NOx SIP Call would have required 
Missouri to reduce emissions of NOx, 
a commonly transported air pollutant 
that contributes to ozone formation. 

After several legal challenges, the 
U.S. EPA's NOx SIP Call is only effec- 
tive for 19 of the 22 originally named 
states, excluding Missouri, Georgia 
and Wisconsin. The U.S. EPA's mod- 
eling showed that Missouri con- 
tributes to ozone problems in Illinois, 
Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. 
On Aug. 30, 2000, the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the D.C. Circuit agreed 
with an industry's group motion to 
extend the deadline for implementa- 
tion of the NOx SIPs for the 19 states 
affected by the SIP call. The deadline 
has been moved from May 1, 2003, to 
May 31, 2004. 

The U.S. EPA intends to propose a 
NOx SIP Call to include part of Mis- 
souri in early 2001, requiring Mis- 
souri to submit a revised state air 
quality plan. This rulemaking will 
provide some additional answers 
about implementation dates for Mis- 
souri's sources as well as any addi- 
tional NOx regulations that will be re- 
quired. Missouri's statewide NOx 
rule, adopted by the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission May 25, 
2000, is intended to improve air qual- 
ity in the St. Louis ozone nonattain- 
ment area. Missouri's statewide NOx 
rule, 10 CSR 10-6.350, will reduce the 
emissions of NOx from electric gener- 
ating units and establish a NOx emis- 
sions trading program for the entire 
state of Missouri. 

The state of Missouri anticipates that 
the U.S. EPA will publish a NOx SIP 
Call in the first quarter of calendar 
year 2001. At that point Missouri will 
need to evaluate the current state- 
wide NOx regulation and the NOx 
SIP Call to determine what Mis- 
souri's response will be. 



Cooperative Development 
of Regulations 

Involving the public in the process of 
making air quality rules helps to cre- 
ate fair, effective regulations that have 
broad support. In 2000, the Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources 
continued its commitment to public 
participation by convening work- 
groups to help develop air regula- 
tions. A workgroup brings industry, 
the public, and government agencies 
together to share concerns and ex- 
change ideas and data while develop- 
ing regulations. 

The department continued to imple- 
ment the recommendations of the 
Construction Permit Streamlining 
Workgroup. The recommendations 
improve the Construction Permit 
Regulations and the internal proce- 
dures and policy for the program to 
review permit applications. The de- 
partment has committed to reconven- 
ing this workgroup in 2001. 

The department also worked with 
leaders from industry, environmental 
organizations and local governments 
to improve air quality in the Kansas 
City area. The department partici- 
pated as a member of the Mid-Amer- 
ica Regional Council, a metropolitan 
planning organization, in the devel- 
opment of an air quality improve- 
ment plan for the Kansas City ozone 
maintenance area which includes 
Johnson and Wyandotte counties in 
Kansas and Clay, Jackson and Platte 
counties in Missouri. 

The department actively participates 
in air quality meetings of the two 
major metropolitan planning organi- 
zations, East- West Gateway Coordi- 
nating Council in St. Louis and Mid- 
America Regional Council. At these 
public meetings, the department pro- 
vides updates on air quality projects 
and discusses proposed rules and 
plans with other participants. 



-4- 



Operating Permits 

In 2000, declining staff numbers 
slowed the Operating Permit Unit's 
progress toward getting all the initial 
Part 70 State Installation Operating 
Permits issued. Progress was made, 
however, and the unit's operating 
permit status at year's end was that 
354 Part 70 Operating Permits, or 78 
percent, had completed technical and 
peer review, had been issued or were 
closed out. Permits that had under- 
gone technical and peer review will 
still need to be reviewed by the pub- 
lic and the U.S. EPA. This process 
normally can be completed in two to 
three months, although objections re- 
ceived by the Air Pollution Control 
Program can slow this process. 

Construction Permits 

Among the 1,036 construction permit 
actions made in 2000, notable major 
level construction permits were is- 
sued for: University of Missouri-Co- 
lumbia Power Plant; Duke Energy- 
Bollinger, LLC; Duke Energy- Audrain; 
Silgan Containers Manufacturing 
Corp; and Silgan Containers Manu- 
facturing Corp. 



Construction Permit Projects 
Completed by Air Pollution 
Control Program 1990-2000 



1200 
1100 
1000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 





90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 
Years 



Enforcement Actions 
and Results 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program performed 1,686 station- 
ary source inspections in the 2000 cal- 
endar year. The department's 
program also issued 1,020 Notices of 
Violation (NOVs) in 2000. Settlements 
were reached in 146 cases. These set- 
tlements resulted in paid penalties of 
$309, 760 and suspended penalties to- 
taling $262,400. The department re- 
ferred 20 cases to the attorney gen- 
eral's office. 

Asbestos 

Federal regulations require that all 
buildings must be inspected for the 
presence of asbestos-containing mate- 
rials (ACM) before they are renovated 
or demolished. The inspection must 
be conducted by a Missouri-certified 
inspector. In most cases ACM must 
be removed before beginning renova- 
tion or demolition. 

Owners or contractors of demolition 
or renovation operations must submit 
a notice of intent to demolish or reno- 
vate a structure to the department's 
Air Pollution Control Program 10 
working days prior to start of opera- 
tion for review and approval. Single 
family homes of four or fewer 
dwelling units are not subject to the 
regulations. However, when more 
than one residential structure is in- 
volved on the same city block per 
one-year period, or if the residential 
structure will be used for fire train- 
ing, the regulations apply. 

The Small Business 
Compliance Advisory 
Committee 

Small businesses are often focused on 
their day-to-day operations and may 
find it difficult to keep up with 
changing air pollution regulations 
and requirements. Section 507 of the 
1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amend- 
ments recognized this and required 
states to develop a three-component 



assistance program to help. The three 
components are a small business om- 
budsman, a technical assistance pro- 
gram for small businesses and a com- 
pliance advisory panel. In Missouri, 
the compliance advisory panel is 
known as the Small Business Compli- 
ance Advisory Committee. 

The Small Business Compliance Ad- 
visory Committee is composed of 
seven members. Two are appointed 
by the governor, one each is ap- 
pointed by the majority and minority 
leaders of the Missouri House and 
Senate, and one is appointed by the 
director of the Missouri Department 
of Natural Resources. The committee 
has the following responsibilities: 

• Receive reports from the small 
business ombudsman (governor's 
office); 

• Evaluate the impact on small busi- 
ness of the Air Conservation Law 
and related regulations; 

• Make recommendations to the Mis- 
souri Department of Natural Re- 
sources, the Missouri Air Conser- 
vation Commission and the 
General Assembly regarding 
changes in procedure, rule or law 
that would help small businesses 
comply with the Air Conservation 
Law; 

• Make recommendations to the Mis- 
souri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion on rules to expedite the review 
of modifications for small business; 
and 

• Conduct hearings and make inves- 
tigations consistent with the pur- 
poses of the small business techni- 
cal assistance activities. 

Currently there are five individuals 
on the committee: Jack Lonsinger, 
chair, Excelsior Springs; Bruce Morri- 
son, St. Louis; Caroline Pufalt, St. 
Louis; Joel Braun, Fenton; and Walter 
Pearson of the Missouri Department 
of Natural Resources. The committee 
met four times in 2000 and dealt with 
a variety of issues from small agricul- 
tural incinerators to open burning. 



-5- 



The small business technical assis- 
tance activity is performed by the de- 
partment's Technical Assistance Pro- 
gram, a non-regulatory service of the 
Missouri Department of Natural Re- 
sources. The Technical Assistance 
Program's business assistance unit 
carries out the activities and provides 
administrative support to the Small 
Business Compliance Advisory Com- 
mittee. The mission of the depart- 
ment's Technical Assistance Program 
is to provide information, assistance, 
education and training to business 
owners, farmers, local governments 
and the general public on how to con- 
trol or reduce pollution. For more in- 
formation, contact the department's 
Technical Assistance Program at 
1-800-361-4827 or (573) 526-6627. 

Number of Missouri 
Nonattainment Areas 
Dwindles in 2000 

In the last quarter century since the 
department's Air Pollution Control 
Program was created, the state has 
been able to bring several areas into 
attainment with the National Ambi- 
ent Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). 
The Kansas City area polluted be- 
yond federal health standards for 
ozone for many years, but in 1992, it 
was redesignated as an ozone main- 
tenance area. The Kansas City area 
now works hard to maintain this sta- 
tus. Use of cleaner gasoline, along 
with industrial controls, has helped 
keep air clean in Kansas City. 

The St. Louis area is still struggling to 
come into compliance with federal 
health standards for ground-level 
ozone, and has implemented a vari- 
ety of programs to help make this 
happen. The Department of Natural 
Resources is confident that the area 
will achieve the ozone standard, 
since the St. Louis community has 
been very successful in resolving 



other air quality problems. In the 
past, portions of St. Louis have been 
in nonattainment for carbon monox- 
ide, sulfur dioxide and particulate 
matter, but these pollutants have 
since been controlled, and the area is 
now in attainment for all pollutants 
except ozone. Extensive computer 
modeling by the department has 
shown that the area will attain stan- 
dards for ozone by 2003. 

Portions of St. Joseph were once des- 
ignated as a nonattainment area for 
particulate matter, but air in this area 
has since been restored and now is in 
compliance with federal standards. 

On Dec. 18, 2000, the U.S. EPA an- 
nounced the redesignation of a lead 
nonattainment area in western Iron 
County. This area is now considered 
to be in attainment of federal health- 
based standards for lead. Air quality 
near a lead smelter in Buick once ex- 
ceeded the NAAQS. However, De- 
partment of Natural Resources staff 
developed a plan that ultimately 
brought this area back into compli- 
ance with these health standards. De- 
partment officials also worked closely 
with the operator of a different lead 
smelter near Glover, Missouri, to 
solve air quality problems near the fa- 
cility. This area has been meeting fed- 
eral air quality standards since the 
start of 1997, and there are plans to 
consider redesignation of this area 
back to attainment soon. Air quality 
near a third lead smelter located in 
Herculaneum continues to exceed 
federal health standards. Working 
closely with the company the depart- 
ment has developed a plan to bring 
this area into attainment as well. The 
plan calls for the enclosure of build- 
ings and the construction of ventila- 
tion and filtration systems. Construc- 
tion of these controls is scheduled for 
completion in July 2002. 



ateway Clean Air Program 



On April 5, 2000, the Gateway 
Clean Air Program's 12 new 
state-of-the-art emissions 
testing stations opened their doors, 
ready to begin the newest job in the 
fight for cleaner air quality in the St. 
Louis metropolitan area. Some 
motorists were already receiving 
mailed notices that their very clean- 
running vehicles had passed an 
unobtrusive roadside test called 
RapidScreen. 

Along with more stringent emission 
controls on industrial sources, an 
improved vehicle emission inspection 
and maintenance program was 
crucial to the state's plan to bring the 
area into compliance with the air 
quality health standards of the Clean 
Air Act. 



In February 1999, a contract was 
signed with Environmental Systems 
Products (ESP Missouri), the nation's 
largest vehicle emissions testing 
contractor, to build and operate the 
test stations under the state's over- 
sight. 

Missouri's contract with ESP 
Missouri calls for most of the 1.2 
million vehicles of the St. Louis area 
to receive an emissions test every two 
years. Even-year vehicles are being 
tested in even-numbered years and 
odd-year vehicles will be tested in 
odd-numbered years, except in 
Franklin County, where an annual 
basic idle test is required. The two 
newest model-year vehicles are 



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RapidScreen 

One Second is All it Takes 
RapidScreen is a convenient op- 
tion under the Gateway Clean Air 
Program that allows motorists to 
pass the new emissions test with- 
out visiting an emissions station. 
Special infrared and ultraviolet 
light technology is used to take an 
unobtrusive "snapshot" of ex- 
haust emissions while vehicles 
are driven on streets and high- 
ways. This new technology has 
proven to be effective for on-road 
identification of very clean vehi- 
cles. According to the U.S. Envi- 
ronmental Protection Agency, the 
St. Louis program is the first pro- 
gram in the country to employ 
"remote sensing" to screen such a 
large number of vehicles. As a 
result of Missouri's initial 
success with RapidScreen, 
other states are beginning to 
look at using this kind of 
technology to make their 
own test programs more 
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Motorists who receive two 
successive clean records 
within 12 months before 
their registration month 
are notified by mail. They 
can then call or send in 
their test fees. The Gate- 
way Clean Air Program 
has been designed so that 
about 40 percent of vehi- 
cles won't even have go 
to a station. The Rapid- 
Screen component of the 
program rewards those 
people who maintain 
their vehicles extremely 
well, allowing them to 
skip a trip to the test 
station. 



- 7 - 



exempted from testing. As of Dec. 31, 
2000, ESP Missouri had tested 567,343 
vehicles through a combination of 
fixed stations, mobile vans and 
RapidScreen. 

This program is the corner-stone of 
the state's efforts to reduce ground- 
level ozone, a harmful pollutant that 
irritates the respiratory system and is 



Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile 
Organic Compounds (VOCs). These 
regulations are applied to industrial 
facilities, on-road and off -road mobile 
sources and smaller area sources such 
as auto painting shops and dry 
cleaners. 

Large trucks and buses emit large 
quantities of pollutants, but they are 

not 



done where they choose, special 
training is available for repair techni- 
cians throughout the region. Those 
who complete the training are "recog- 
nized repair technicians" listed in a 
booklet provided to motorists whose 
vehicles fail a test. The shop's labor 
charges may be counted toward the 
spending requirements for a waiver. 
The waiver is issued only if the 
vehicle fails a retest and valid emis- 
sion repairs and expenditures have 
been made. By repairing their vehi- 
cles, owners not only make a 
significant contribution to protecting 
the air we breathe, but they also 
ensure that their vehicles will run 
better, last longer and use less gaso- 
line, saving motorists money in the 
long run. 

Emissions testing by the Gateway 
Clean Air Program has been designed 
to double the emission reductions of 
the previous program while 
providing the greatest possible 
convenience to the public. Each 
month the program has performed 
about 50,000 station-based tests and 
mailed approximately 60,000 Rapid- 
Screen notices. 

While RapidScreen is a phone and 
mail-in system, the department has 
added capabilities at the stations to 
process motorists who have passed 
RapidScreen. This, along with other 
improvements in efficiency, has made 
long waits rare, even at the end of the 
month. Most motorist wait less than 
15 minutes. 

For more information about the 
Gateway Clean Air Program, visit the 
program's Web site at [www.gate- 
waycleanair.com]. St. Louis area 
motorists also may call toll free 1-888- 
748-1AIR (1247). 




particularly harmful to children, the 
elderly and anyone working or exer- 
cising outdoors. Getting control of the 
St. Louis ozone problem requires 
cutting down the emissions of major 
and minor sources of harmful 



included in 
the 

program for 
two 

reasons. 
First, they 
emit rela- 
tively low 
amounts of 
the volatile 
organic 
compounds 
that form 
ground- 
level ozone, 
which is the 
air quality 
problem of 
most 

concern in 
St. Louis. 
Also, many 
of these 
vehicles are 
transient in 
nature and 
impossible 
to regulate 
at the state 
level. The 
federal 
government 

is setting standards for new manufac- 
tured and rebuilt diesel engines and 
standards to make diesel fuel cleaner. 

Although motorists can still repair 
their own vehicles or have repairs 



ajor Air Pollutant 



The measurements for air qual- 
ity in Missouri are the Na- 
tional Ambient (outdoor) Air 
Quality Standards established by the 
U.S. EPA under the Clean Air Act. 
The standards address six "criteria 
pollutants" considered harmful to 
public health and the environment: 
ozone, lead, inhalable particles, car- 
bon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and 
sulfur dioxide. 

Ozone 

Ground-level ozone is a colorless gas, 
the most harmful part of urban air 
pollution. Ozone is not directly emit- 
ted but it forms on hot summer days 
when sunlight causes a reaction be- 
tween volatile organic compounds 
(VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). 
Vehicles, power plants and industrial 
boilers are common sources of NOx. 
Gasoline-powered vehicles and man- 
ufacturing operations are major 
sources of VOCs. 

There are two types of ozone: 
stratospheric (upper atmosphere) and 
ground-level ozone. Ozone in the 
stratosphere occurs naturally and is 
desirable, shielding the earth from 
harmful ultraviolet rays. Ozone at 
ground level irritates the respiratory 
system, causing congestion, chest 
pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
It also aggravates existing lung and 
heart conditions such as asthma. 

Airborne Lead 

In Missouri, airborne lead and its 
compounds are produced mainly by 
lead smelters. Airborne lead poses 
the greatest danger to children under 
age six, so the standard has been es- 
tablished to protect their health. In 
1985, 73 percent of airborne lead 



came from vehicle exhaust pipes. By 
1988, this had dropped to 34 percent 
due to federal controls on gasoline 
that started in the mid-1970s. 

Inhalable Particles 

Inhalable particles include airborne 
dust, pollen, soot and aerosol sprays. 
Scientists refer to these as "particulate 
matter." Current federal standards 
apply to particles less than 10 mi- 
crons in diameter, or PMio . Wind and 
rainfall cause seasonal variations in 
PM 10 . In 1997, the U.S. EPA set new 
standards for even smaller particles 
less than 2.5 microns in diameter, or 
PM 2 . 5 (see Page 24). 

Carbon Monoxide 

Carbon monoxide (CO), formed by 
the incomplete combustion of fuel, is 
one of the most common pollutants. 
More than 75 percent of CO emis- 
sions come from vehicle exhaust. The 
highest concentrations are caused by 
heavy traffic in metropolitan areas. 
Though deadly, CO changes quickly 
to carbon dioxide, which is not dan- 
gerous. 

Nitrogen Dioxide 

Almost all nitrogen dioxide is man- 
made. When fuel is burned above 
1200 degrees Fahrenheit, nitrogen 
dioxide can form. Principal sources 
of nitrogen dioxide include power 
plants, industrial boilers and vehicles. 

Sulfur Dioxide 

Sulfur oxides form through the burn- 
ing of fuels that contain sulfur, such 
as coal and oil, by smelting metals 
and by other industrial processes. 
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) composes about 
95 percent of these gases. 



Other Air 
Pollutants 

In addition to the six criteria 
pollutants, the Department 
of Natural Resources' Air 
Pollution Control Program 
also regulates other 
pollutants, including 
asbestos and hazardous air 
pollutants. 

Asbestos 

Asbestos is a naturally 
occurring mineral that takes 
the form of hollow 
microscopic fibers. Before 
being identified as a cancer- 
causing agent, asbestos was 
widely used for insulation 
and fireproofing. With age, it 
breaks down and becomes a 
hazard to anyone who 
breathes its airborne fibers. 
Federal and state laws 
regulate the removal of 
asbestos from buildings. 
The Department of Natural 
Resources monitors removal. 

Hazardous Air 
Pollutants (HAPS) 

Some air pollutants can 
cause quick and painful 
death, cancer, reproductive 
disorders and environmental 
damage such as acid rain. 
The U.S. EPA has designated 
these pollutants as 
hazardous air pollutants. 
These pollutants may 
present a hazard to public 
health and safety if released 
in sufficient quantity. 



- 9- 



lean Air Standard 



The Clean Air Act established 
two types of national air quality 
standards. Primary standards 
set limits to protect public health, 
including the health of "sensitive" 
populations such as children, elderly 
and those with respiratory illnesses. 
Secondary standards set limits to 
protect public welfare, including 
protection against decreased visibility, 
damage to animals, crops, vegetation 
and buildings. 

New Standards 

In 1997, the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) established 
new health-based standards for 
ground-level ozone and fine 
particulate matter. Extensive scientific 
review showed that the changes were 
necessary to protect public health and 
the environment. However, the new 
standards were challenged in court. 
In May 1999, the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia 
Circuit declared that the new 
standards are not enforceable. 
Therefore, the standards cannot be 
implemented at this time. However, 
the U.S. EPA appealed most of this 
decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. 
Arguments were heard Nov. 7, 2000, 
and a decision is expected in spring 
2001. 

Fine Particulate Matter: 
PM2.5 versus PMio 

In revising the air quality standards, 
the U.S. EPA created new standards 
for PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 
2.5 microns in diameter). The U.S. 
EPA's scientific review concluded that 
fine particles (PM2.5), which penetrate 
deeply into the lungs, are more 
damaging to human health than the 



coarse particles known as PMio- Fine 
particles are more likely than coarse 
particles to contribute to such health 
effects as premature death, increased 
hospital admissions and emergency 
visits, especially for the elderly and 
individuals with cardiopulmonary 
disease. Coarse particles can 
accumulate in the respiratory system 
and aggravate health problems such 
as asthma. 

Air Quality Monitors in 
Missouri 

In 2000, the Missouri Air Pollution 
Monitoring Network included 111 
monitors of three types: national 
monitors, state and local agency 
monitors and special-purpose 
monitors. National monitors have 
been established to provide data on 
national trends. State and local 
agencies operate permanent monitors 
to measure ambient concentrations of 
those pollutants for which National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards have 
been set. Special-purpose monitors 
are placed to gather representative 
data as well as worst-case occurrences. 
Data is also being collected at 44 
meteorological monitors operating 
throughout the state. The data 
collected at these monitors are used 
for analysis and modeling purposes. 



-10- 



a 




CRITERIA AIR 
POLLUTANT 

Carbon 
Monoxide 




Lead 



AVERAGING 
TIME 

Eight-hour 
maximum 3 

One-hour 
maximum 11 



Maximum 
Quarterly 
Arithmetic 
Mean 



PRIMARY 
STANDARD 

9 ppm 
(10 mg/m3) 

35 ppmd 
(40 mg/m3) c 



1.5 ug/m3 



SECONDARY 
STANDARD 

None 



None 



Same As 
Primary 



Nitrogen 
Dioxide 



Ozone 




i iiiiLciiy 

Standard 




Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 



One-hour av- 



erage 13 



0.05 ppm 
(100 ug/m3) 



0.12 ppm 
(235 ug/m3) 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 




Particulate 

Matter 

(PM 10 ) 



Sulfur 
Dioxide 



Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 

24-hour aver- 
age* 



Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 

24-hour max- 
imum 9 

Three-hour 
maximum* 5 



50 ug/m3 



150 ug/m3 



0.03 ppm 
(80 ug/m3) 



0.14 ppm 
(365 ug/m3) 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 




HEALTH 
EFFECTS 



Impaired vision and manual dexterity, 
weakness and mental dullness. At 
high levels: vomiting, fast pulse and 
breathing, followed by slow pulse and 
breathing, then collapse and 
unconsciousness. 

Low doses damage the central 
nervous system of children and 
unborn infants, causing seizures, 
mental retardation and behavioral 
disorders. In children and adults lead 
causes fatigue, disturbed sleep, 
decreased fitness and damage to 
kidneys, liver and blood-forming 
organs. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, 
coma and death. 

Lung inflammation and lower 
resistance to infections like bronchitis 
and pneumonia. Suspected of causing 
acute respiratory diseases in children. 

Throat irritation, congestion, chest 
pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
Aggravation of existing lung or heart 
conditions, allergies and asthma-. 
Ozone is especially harmful to those 
who work or play outside. Ozone is 
also harmful to plant life, damaging 
forests and reducing crop yields. 

Increased likelihood of chronic or 
acute respiratory illness. Difficulty 
breathing, aggravation of existing 
respiratory or cardiovascular illness 
and lung damage. 



Irritation of throat and lungs with 
difficulty in breathing. Aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular 
illness. 



0.5 ppm 
(1300 ug/m3) 




a Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary and secondary 
standards. 

b Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary and secondary 

standards. 
c mg/ m3 = milligrams per cubic meter. 



d ppm = part per million. 

e g/ m3 = micrograms per cubic meter. 

f Established for a three-year average of the 99th percentile of data, 
g Established for a three-year average. 

h Established for a three-year average of the 98th percentile of data. 



-li- 



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-12- 



— 13 — 



issouri's Air Qualit 



Two exceptions to good air 
quality in Missouri are the St. 
Louis area during the summer 
and one spot in eastern Missouri. 
The St. Louis area has repeatedly 
exceeded the ozone standard and is 
designated by the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) as a 
moderate-level nonattainment area 
for ozone. This area includes the city 
of St. Louis and Franklin, Jefferson, 
St. Charles and St. Louis counties (see 
Page 17), as well as Madison, Monroe 
and St. Clair counties in Illinois. A 
small area near a lead smelter in 



Jefferson County still exceeds federal 
standards for lead (see Page 22). 

Air Quality Trends 

The department monitors air concen- 
trations of the six criteria pollutants 
at selected locations throughout the 
state. Most areas of the state are in 
attainment of the air standards. 

The graphs below are representative 
of general trends of ambient air data 
from four pollutants CO, NOx, SOx 
and PMio- Please see Major Air 
Pollutants on Page 9 for more infor- 
mation on sources of these pollutants 



Air Quality Trends at 
Selected Locations 



NITROGEN DIOXIDE 
ANNUAL MEAN, ppm 

South Lindbergh, Affton 1992-2000 




92 93 



95 96 97 98 99 00 
Years 



CARBON MONOXIDE 
2nd 8-hr MAX, ppm 
St. Charles Rock Road, St. Ann 1992-2000 



Standard = .9 ppm* (parts per million)* 








Trend 








1 1 
1 1 

■ 1 

■ H 


r-i 2~T 

1 1 1 1 P-l 1 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 
Years 



SULFUR DIOXIDE 
2nd 24-hr MAX, ppm 
South Charleston, Springfield 1992-2000 



0.14 
0.12 
0.10 
0.08 
0.06 
0.04 
0.02 
0.00 



Standard = .14 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 



1«mlJ^B~ ^^^^^^ 



1 1 m 1 1 mi 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 
Years 



PM10 ANNUAL 
MEAN, ppm 

St. Joseph, Missouri 1992-2000 



Standard = 50 Ug/lTl3* (micro grams per cubic meter)* 



n 
1 1 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 
Years 



-14- 



and their health effects. The overall 
trend as shown by the four graphs at 
left is improved air quality. 



Annual Reported Emissions 



Emission Trends 

In 1999, Missouri expanded its emis- 
sion inventory submittal to the U.S. 
EPA to add area and mobile sources to 
the point source information. Area 
sources are the smaller businesses and 
local and regional activities such as 
pesticide applications, highway 
painting and open burning. On-road 
mobile sources encompass passenger 
and commercial vehicles, while off- 
road mobile sources include 
construction equipment, motorized 
recreation vehicles and small 
machines like lawnmowers. 

The graphs at right show the total 
emissions of the criteria pollutants 
that Missouri facilities reported for 
the years 1993 to 1999. As reflected in 
the graphs, facilities have generally 
reported decreased emissions. Since 
1993, facilities have reduced PMio 
emissions 54 percent, while VOC 
emissions have dropped 39 percent. 
Sulfur oxide emissions dropped 42 
percent since 1993. Industries have 
also reported a 15 percent decline in 
the emission of NOx since 1993. 

NOx emissions are expected to 
continue to decline between now and 
the year 2007. The U.S. EPA's NOx 
State Implementation Plan (SIP) call, 
if promulgated for Missouri, will 
require a reduction in NOx emissions 
of approximately 35 percent from the 
eastern one-third of Missouri. 
Missouri has a statewide NOx rule 
that will achieve slightly more emis- 
sion reductions from electrical 
generating units in the entire state. 
The tables at right show relative 
contributions from major industrial 
sources. 



PM10 SO2 




10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 
Tons Per Year Tons Per Year 

NO2 VOC 




50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 

Tons Per Year Tons Per Year 



Top Point Emission 


Tons of NO x contributed 




Sources for NO x 


by these sources in 1999 


Percent of total 


(1) Electricity Generation 


191,835.58 


82.5% 


(2) Cement Production 


16,416.80 


7.1% 


(3) Lime Production 


4,159.20 


1 .8% 


(4) Oil and Gas Pipelines 


3,826.30 


1 .6% 


(5) All Others 


16,184.25 


7.0% 


Total: 


232,422.13 




Top Point Emission 


Tons of PM 10 contributed 




Sources for PM 10 


by these sources in 1999 


Percent of total 


(1) Electricity Generation 


5,269.71 


21.4% 


(2) Charcoal Production 


3,239.24 


13.1% 


(3) Cement Production 


2,549.97 


10.3% 


(4) Lime Production 


2,125.12 


8.6% 


(5) Sand and Gravel Processing 


1,885.36 


7.6% 


(6) All Others 


9,590.81 


38.9% 


Total: 


24,660.21 




Top Point Emission 


Tons of VOCs contributed 




Sources for VOCs 


by these sources in 1999 


Percent of total 


(1) Charcoal Production 


7,473.69 


18.1% 


(2) Motor Vehicle Production and 


3,891.80 


9.4% 


Auto Body Finishing 






(3) Aluminum Foil Production 


2,394.11 


5.8% 


(4) Cement Production 


2,098.50 


5.1% 


(5) Plastics Production 


1,786.39 


4.3% 


(6) Automobiles Production 


1,744.11 


4.2% 


(7) Electricity Generation 


1,501.01 


3.6% 


(8) All Others 


20,479.26 


49.5% 


Total: 


41,359.87 





-15- 



Air Quality Index: Ozone 





Levels of 
Health 
Concern 


Cautionary 
Statements 


0-50 


Good 


None 


51-100* 


Moderate 


Unusually sensitive 
people should 
consider limiting 
prolonged outdoor 
exertion. 


101-150 


Unhealthy 

for 
sensitive 
groups 


Active children and 
adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease, such as 
asthma, should 
limit prolonged 
outdoor exertion. 


151-200 


Unhealthy 


Active children and 

adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease, such as 
asthma, should 
avoid prolonged 
outdoor exertion; 
everyone else, 

especially children, 
should limit 

prolonged outdoor 
exertion. 


201-300 


Very 
unhealthy 


Active children and 
adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease such as 
asthma, should 
avoid all outdoor 
exertion; everyone 
else, especially 
children, should 
limit outdoor 
exertion. 


301-500 


Hazardous 


Everyone should 
avoid all outdoor 
exertion. 



* Generally, an AQI of 100 for ozone 
corresponds to an ozone level of 0.08 parts 
per million (averaged over 8 hours). 



■ 



one in Missou 



Naturally occurring ozone in 
the upper atmosphere pro- 
tects the earth from the sun's 
harmful rays. Ground-level ozone is 
an irritant that damages lung tissue 
and aggravates respiratory disease. 
The pollutant is formed when heat and 
sunlight mix with volatile organic 
compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen 
oxide (NOx) emissions in the lower at- 
mosphere. Ozone can trigger a variety 
of health problems. Those most sus- 
ceptible to ozone include children, the 
elderly and individuals with pre-exist- 
ing respiratory problems. Even healthy 
young adults may experience respira- 
tory problems at ozone levels as low as 
.08 parts-per-million (ppm) if they re- 
main outdoors for extended periods. 
This could include individuals whose 
jobs require a great deal of time out- 
doors, such as road construction work- 
ers, or even individuals working in 
their lawns or gardens. The table at left 
describes the Air Quality Index (AQI), 
a system used to warn communities in 
St. Louis and Kansas City on days 
when their air may be dangerous to 
breathe. During the ozone season, be- 
tween April 1 and Oct. 31, many radio 
and television stations in the St. Louis 
and Kansas City areas provide AQI in- 
formation on a daily basis. 

Number of Ozone Site 
Exceedances Reported 

Approximately 4 million of Mis- 
souri's 5.4 million residents live in St. 



Louis and Kansas City where the like- 
lihood of ozone formation is greatest. 
The National Ambient Air Quality 
Standard of .12 ppm is often ex- 
ceeded on hot, sunny summer days. 
The number of days ozone levels ex- 
ceed this standard in a given year 
generally reflects both weather condi- 
tions and the pollutants in the area's 
air. 

In 2000, the St. Louis ozone nonat- 
tainment area reported only one ex- 
ceedance of the one-hour ozone stan- 
dard. Kansas City reported two 
exceedances. The chart below shows 
the number of days St. Louis and 
Kansas City exceeded the ground- 
level ozone standard in the last 
decade. The chart on the right shows 
the number of days the St. Louis area 
exceeded the ground-level ozone 
standard in comparison to the num- 
ber of days weather conditions were 
favorable for exceeding this standard. 
This chart reflects the importance of 
individual actions in controlling 
ozone. In recent years weather con- 
ditions have been favorable to the 
formation of high levels of ozone in 
the St. Louis area on several days. 
However, through carpooling, post- 
poning mowing, avoiding use of 
charcoal lighter fluid and many other 
voluntary efforts, St. Louis area resi- 
dents were able to prevent high 
ozone levels on many of those days. 




UIS 



Ozone in St. Lo 



If four or more exceedances of the 
health-based standard for ozone 
occur at the same monitor in a 
three-year period, it is considered a 
violation, and the area is designated 
as nonattainment. Nonattainment 
areas are then divided into five 
classifications based on the severity 
of the exceedances that occurred at 
the monitor in a three-year period: 
marginal, moderate, serious, severe 
and extreme. Under the Clean Air 
Act, the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) has 
designated many areas in the country 
as nonattainment for ozone. In 1999, 
the St. Louis ozone nonattainment 
area was one of five areas nationwide 
classified as a moderate ozone 
nonattainment area. 

The St. Louis ozone nonattainment 

area includes the city of St. Louis, and 
the counties of St. Charles, St. Louis, 
Jefferson and Franklin. The Illinois 
side includes Madison, Monroe and 
St. Clair counties. The map at right 
shows the sites for air monitors in the 
ozone nonattainment area. 



St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area Monitoring Sites 




91 

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St. Louis Nonattainment Area 1-Hour Ozone 1978 - 2000 
Number of Exceedances vs Conductive Days 



- # of Exceedances 
- # of Conducive Days 



Criteria: 

* Temperatures > 85 degrees Fahrenheit 

* Wind speeds < 10 miles per hour 

* Solar Radiation of 500 Langley s or better 

* Little or no dayime Precipitation 

* Winds from southeast to west 




Exceedance: An exceedance 

occurs when levels of a certain 
pollutant are higher than those 
deemed safe by the federal 
government. 

Violation: Four or more 
exceedances at the same air 
quality monitor in a three-year 
period equal a violation. 

Nonattainment: An area that has 
had a violation is classified as 
nonattainment. Nonattainment 

areas are then divided into five 
categories: marginal, moderate, 
serious, severe and extreme. 



I 

I 



Missouri's State Implementa- 
tion Plan (SIP) for the St. 
Louis ozone nonattain- 
ment area includes control measures 
and schedules for compliance with 
the Clean Air Act in order to attain 



the federal health-based standard for 
ground-level ozone. To reduce ozone 
concentrations to safe levels, the state 
must control both industrial and 
mobile sources of volatile organic 
compounds (VOC) and nitrogen 
oxides (NOx). Cars, trucks and buses 
are examples of mobile sources of 
VOCs. Major controls benefiting St. 
Louis recently included a vehicle 
emissions inspection and mainte- 




Number of Days with Excessive Ozone - 

St. Louis Nonattainment Area 



Number of One-Hour Exceedances 






Address 


90 


91 


92 


93 
















St. Louis 


Missouri 
























Arnold 


Arnold and Tenbrook 


o 




















o 


West Alton 


Highway 94 


2 


o 
















3 


1 


Orchard Farm 






















2 




St. Louis 


8227 S. Broadway 
























St. Louis 


1122 Clark and Tucker 
























St. Louis 


Newstead & Cote Brilliante 


^| 


o 




o 


o 




o 


o 




o 


o 


Affton 


South Lindbergh 


1 






2 














o 


Queeny Park 


305 Weidman 


o 








— 


M 


1 








^| 




o 


Clayton 


55 Hunter Avenue 






















Ferguson 


3400 Pershall Road 














2 




o 


1 


1 


i 


o 


St. Ann 


10267 St. Charles Rock Road 


1 











4 










1 


l 







Illinois 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 


00 


Alton 


409 Main Street 











2 


1 


1 


2 








1 





Maryville 


200 West Division 











1 


1 


1 

















Edwardsville 


Poag Road 





1 











3 





1 











Wood River 


54 North Walcott 














1 


2 


1 


1 





1 





East St. Louis 


13th and Tudor 











1 





1 








1 








St. Louis Nonattainment Total 


6 


2 


3 


6 


25 


20 


8 


6 


12 


13 


1 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone 

St. Louis exceeded the ozone standard each summer between 1996 and 2000. 
The table above shows the number of days that sites in Missouri and Illinois re- 
ported exceeding the ozone standard. The St. Louis ozone nonattainment area 
reported only one exceedance of the one-hour standard during the 2000 ozone 
season (April 1 through October 31), which was a significant improvement from 
the 1999 ozone season, when 13 exceedances were reported. 



-18- 



nance program, Stage II vapor 
recovery systems for gasoline refu- 
eling, advanced emissions control 
systems for existing and new indus- 
trial sources and controls on NOx 
emissions from utility boilers. Two 
control strategies leading to the 
greatest reductions in VOC emissions 
are enhanced vehicle inspection and 
maintenance and reformulated gaso- 
line. 

Vehicle Emissions 
Inspections 

Programs for vehicle emissions 
testing and repair, or Inspection and 
Maintenance programs, are key 
mechanisms for controlling mobile 
source emissions in many urban 
regions nationwide. The Gateway 
Clean Air Program represents a large 
portion of the Department of Natural 
Resources' state implementation 
plan to bring St. Louis into compli- 
ance with the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 
ozone, or urban smog. 

At the end of 1999, the state ended 
the previous program of testing 
vehicle emissions using the basic 
(idle) emissions test procedure that 
was combined with the annual safety 
inspection conducted at local car 
service facilities every year. In April 
2000, the 12 new emissions testing 
stations of the Gateway Clean Air 
Program opened. These stations 
were built and the new program is 
operated under a state contract with 
Environmental Systems Products Inc. 
(ESP Missouri). For the first time, 
Franklin County also began vehicle 
emissions testing in 2000, using an 
improved basic (idle) emissions test. 

The Gateway Clean Air Program uses 
new emissions testing technologies. 
An enhanced emissions test simulates 
real driving conditions on a 
dynamometer (treadmill-like device) 
during testing. This measures specific 
pollutants from vehicles much more 



St. Louis Nonattainment Area 1-Hour Ozone 1984 - 2000 
Excee dances/Major Control Implementation Start Dates 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 



00 



precisely than the older idle testing 
system. Stations performing the new 
tests cannot offer repair services. A 
second test, called RapidScreen, uses 
a remote sensing device to monitor 
exhaust emissions while vehicles are 
being driven on roads and highways. 
RapidScreen allows the very cleanest- 
running vehicles to pass the new 
emissions test without visiting emis- 
sions testing stations. For vehicles 
manufactured from 1971 through 
1980, and for vehicles tested in 
Franklin County, an improved 
version of the idle test is used. 

For more information on the Gateway 
Clean Air Program, see the special 
Gateway Clean Air Program section 
on Page 6 of this report. Additional 
information is also available by 
visiting the following Web sites: 
gatewaycleanair.com, 
www.dnr.state.mo.us/ deq/ apcp/ gcap/ 
or www.cleanair-stlouis.com/ gcap/. 

Low Reid Vapor 
Pressure Gasoline and 
Reformulated Gasoline 

Many volatile organic compound 
(VOC) control measures have been 



used in the effort to reach attainment 
of the ozone standard. In 1994, low 
REID vapor pressure gasoline was 
implemented in St. Louis. Reid vapor 
pressure (RVP) is a measure of gaso- 
line's tendency to evaporate into the 
air. Lowering RVP reduces evapora- 
tive emissions of gasoline. Between 
1994 and 1998, a state regulation 
restricted the RVP of gasoline sold in 
the St. Louis nonattainment area 
during the warmest months of the 
year, June 1 through Sept. 15. 

Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) 

has been required at retail gasoline 
stations in the St. Louis ozone nonat- 
tainment area since June 1, 1999. 
RFG is a gasoline formula designed 
to burn cleaner than conventional 
gasoline, and to reduce exhaust and 
evaporative emissions by adjusting 
the amount of various components 
already found in conventional gaso- 
line. RFG is administered and 
enforced by the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA). Phase II of 
the RFG program, which began Jan. 
1, 2000, requires additional emission 
reductions compared to Phase I RFG. 
Phase II RFG requires a minimum of 



-19- 




25 percent VOC reductions, a 20 
percent reduction in air toxics and a 5 
to 7 percent reduction in NOx emis- 
sions. 

Area Reclassification ("Bump-Up") 
Moderate nonattainment areas were 
required to meet the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standard for 
ozone by Nov. 15, 1996. Because St. 
Louis failed to meet this goal, the area 
may be reclassified by the U.S. EPA, 
or "bumped up" in its nonattainment 
status from moderate to serious. In 
1998, the U.S. EPA proposed a new 
policy that may allow St. Louis to 
obtain an attainment date extension. 
The department committed to 
meeting the requirements of the U.S. 
EPA's policy. Under the policy, the 
Department of Natural Resources 
must demonstrate that St. Louis is 
affected by air pollution transported 
from upwind areas. Also, all required 
local control measures must be imple- 
mented and the department must 
submit an approvable attainment 
demonstration showing the area will 
attain the ozone standard. 



On Nov. 12, 1999, the department 
submitted a package of regulatory 
requirements to the U.S. EPA 
including the Vehicle Inspection and 
Maintenance Plan, the 15 Percent 
Rate-of -Progress Plan, the Attain- 
ment Demonstration, seven 
reasonably available control tech- 
nology (RACT) rules and a draft rule 
to reduce statewide emissions of 
nitrogen oxides. This package was 
followed by a June 29, 2000, submittal 
of a final rule to reduce statewide 
emissions of nitrogen oxides and 
amendments to the attainment 
demonstration. On April 17, 2000, 
the U.S. EPA proposed to extend the 
attainment date for St. Louis to 2003. 
This proposal has not been finalized. 

One obstacle to the attainment date 
extension is a lawsuit filed in July 
1998 by environmental groups 
against the U.S. EPA for failure to 
bump up the St. Louis area. Should 
this bump up occur, St. Louis would 
be obligated to meet the more strin- 
gent mandatory requirements for 
serious nonattainment areas. 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone 

Kansas City Ozone Maintance Area 




Number of One-Hour Exceedances 




Site 


Address 








93 
















Kansas City 


Missouri 
























Liberty 


Hwy 33 and County Hwy 
























Lawson 


Watkins Mill State Park Road 


— 








MM 





3 


— 


MM 


^| 


— 


o 


Kansas City 


49th and Winchester WOF 













° 
















o 


Kansas City 


Richards Gebaur AFB 






























1 


Kansas City 


11500 N. 71 Hwy KCI Airport 


1 





1 








1 





^| 


1 





1 




Kansas 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 


00 


Wyandotte CO 


Ann Avenue 











1 








1 





1 








Total 


2 


1 


1 


2 





9 


1 


2 


5 





2 



-20- 



Ozone in Kansas 



City 



The Kansas City area was desig- 
nated as a sub-marginal ozone 
nonattainment area under the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In 
1992, the Kansas City area showed 
compliance with the standard and was 
redesignated to attainment and re- 
named an ozone maintenance area. 
The Kansas City ozone maintenance 
area includes Clay, Jackson and Platte 
counties in Missouri and Johnson and 
Wyandotte counties in Kansas. 

In 2000, Kansas City reported two ex- 
ceedances of the one-hour ozone stan- 
dard. The Kansas City area did not re- 
port any exceedances in 1999. The 
table at left shows the number of days 
each site reported exceeding the ozone 
standard between 1990 and 2000. 

The states of Kansas and Missouri 
along with the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 
monitoring network review during 
2000. Missouri has recommended 
changes to the monitoring network. If 
the recommendations are accepted the 
area will add two additional monitors 
and will relocate several others. The 
changes to the network should allow 
for better coverage during diverse me- 
teorological conditions. 



Controlling 
Kansas City Ozone 



The Kansas City area has experi- 
enced ozone problems since the 
late 1970s. In response to the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 
the U.S. EPA published two regula- 
tions that reduced the Reid vapor pres- 
sure (RVP) of gasoline in the Kansas 
City area. RVP is a measure of the ten- 
dency of gasoline to evaporate into the 



air. Lowering gasoline's RVP reduces 
its evaporative emissions. From 1990 
through 1997, the RVP of gasoline in 
Kansas City has been reduced on three 
occasions. The latest change occurred 
during summer 1997. The Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources and 
Kansas Department of Health and En- 
vironment both required that 7.2 RVP 
gasoline be sold in the Kansas City 
Maintenance Area during the peak 
ozone season. 

The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram developed an ozone control 
strategy after working with the Mid- 
America Regional Council (MARC), 
the Kansas Department of Health and 
Environment, Kansas City local agen- 
cies and industrial representatives. 
This strategy was to be implemented 
in place of the contingency measures 
presented in the 1992 Kansas City 
Ozone Maintenance State Implemen- 
tation Plan. The Missouri Department 
of Natural Resources presented this 
plan to the Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission in April 1997. The com- 
mission asked the Department of Nat- 
ural Resources to remove inspection 
and maintenance from this plan and 
replace it with a more expeditious con- 
trol program. After discussions with 
MARC and other community repre- 
sentatives, a control strategy including 
reformulated gasoline (RFG) was de- 
veloped. The revised maintenance 
plan called for RFG to be sold in the 
Kansas City area starting in 2000. The 
Missouri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion adopted the Maintenance Plan in 
February 1998. This plan required the 
Department of Natural Resources to 
recommend that the governor ask the 
U.S. EPA to include the Kansas City 
area in the federal RFG program by 
April 2000. 

RFG would have replaced low RVP 
gasoline as the fuel control strategy. 
The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources and the Kansas Department 
of Health and Environment hosted a 



Fuels Summit in June 1999. This sum- 
mit resulted in a recommendation to 
proceed with RFG. The governors of 
Kansas and Missouri opted into the 
RFG program at the end of July 1999. 
However, a lawsuit against the U.S. 
EPA blocked the use of federal RFG in 
former ozone nonattainment areas, in- 
cluding Kansas City. 

The states of Kansas and Missouri met 
with petroleum interests that serve the 
Kansas City market on three occasions 
during spring 2000. These meetings 
focused on developing a new fuel 
strategy for the Kansas City area. The 
petroleum representatives offered to 
supply Kansas City with a 7.0 RVP 
gasoline beginning in 2001. They also 
said that the states would have to 
make up any emission reduction short- 
falls with stationary source controls. 

On June 13, 2000, the Air Quality 
Forum voted to reaffirm their recom- 
mendation that Stage II Vapor Recov- 
ery be implemented if a state RFG-like 
fuel was not available to the Kansas 
City Maintenance Area. On June 29, 
2000, the MARC Board of Directors 
also voted to reaffirm their commit- 
ment to implement Stage II Vapor Re- 
covery if a state RFG-like fuel was not 
available for the Kansas City area. 

The state of Kansas sent a letter to the 
U.S. EPA committing to implement a 
7.0 RVP gasoline program and a cold 
solvent cleaning regulation on July 7, 
2000. The state of Missouri sent a let- 
ter on Aug. 22, 2000, also committing 
to implement a 7.0 RVP regulation and 
cold solvent cleaning regulation. In 
addition, Missouri committed to 
amending the Stage I Vapor Recovery 
program in Kansas City to include en- 
hanced reporting and record-keeping, 
increased inspection frequency and in- 
stallation of pressure vacuum relief 
valves. The department is working on 
these rulemakings and anticipates 
completion of the revisions to the 
maintenance plan during late spring or 
early summer 2001. 



-21- 



ead In Missouri 




Low doses of lead can damage 
the central nervous system of 
infants and children, causing 
seizures, disabilities and behavior 
disorders. In children and adults, 
lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and decreased fitness. It damages the 
kidneys, liver and blood-forming or- 
gans. It is suspected of causing high 
blood pressure and heart disease. 
High levels damage the nervous sys- 
tem and cause seizures, comas and 
death. The National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards (NAAQS) are es- 
tablished by the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) and limit 
the amount of certain pollutants al- 
lowed in outside air. These limits are 
based on what is safe for humans to 
breathe. The NAAQS standard for 
lead is set at 1.5 micrograms per 
cubic meter averaged over a calendar 
quarter. The federal Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990 require states to 
bring nonattainment areas into com- 
pliance with the lead standard. Lead 



Lead Nonattainment Areas 



Charles > 



O St. Louis City 














... 


























Ray 








Reynolds 




St. Francois 


2 


Madison 





Nonattainment Area Primary Lead Emitter 

1 City of Herculaneum Doe Run, Herculaneum 

2 Liberty/Arcadia Township Doe Run, Glover 



emissions are reduced through con- 
trol strategies and clean work prac- 
tices. All methods of reducing lead 
emissions are included in the Mis- 
souri State Implementation Plan 
(SIP) for lead, making them enforce- 
able. 

At the beginning of 2000, there were 
three areas designated as being in 
nonattainment for lead standards. 
The Doe Run Company operates lead 
smelters within these areas. How- 
ever, on Dec. 18, 2000, the U.S. EPA 
redesignated the Bixby lead nonat- 
tainment area to attainment. 

Herculaneum Plan Approval 

The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram recently revised the control 
strategy for the Herculaneum lead 
SIP. The department's Air Pollution 
Control Program presented this plan 
on Oct. 26, 2000. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission adopted 
the plan Dec. 7, 2000. 

The SIP involved the development of 
an emission inventory protocol, ob- 
servation of emission testing, over- 
sight and review of on-site meteoro- 
logical data, development of a 
comprehensive hour-by-hour emis- 
sion inventory, development and con- 
siderable refinements of a dispersion 
model, three rounds of receptor mod- 
eling and model reconciliation. The 
emission control strategy involves en- 
closure of the main processes at the 
plant and the installation of building 
ventilation systems. The ventilation 
gases will be filtered by high-effi- 
ciency filtration systems. Capital 
costs are expected to be about $12 
million. All controls are expected to 
be installed by July 31, 2002. 

As part of the SIP development, the 
U.S. EPA strongly recommended 
using a different modeling tool. 
Chemical Mass Balance modeling is a 
statistical method of quantifying indi- 
vidual source contributions by exam- 



- 22 - 



ining the chemical profile or " finger- 
print " of each source and comparing 
this to samples collected in the ambi- 
ent environment. 

Air quality data for the area shows 
continued violations of the lead 
NAAQS, most notably at the Broad 
Street monitor. This monitor is lo- 
cated within a few hundred yards of 
the facility. Preview of the monitor- 
ing shows that this monitor gives 
very high readings on days when the 
prevailing winds blow directly from 
the plant to the monitor. 

Glover Plan 

The Doe Run Smelter near Glover 
was formerly known as the 
ASARCO-Glover Smelter. In late 
August 1998, Doe Run purchased all 
of ASARCO's Missouri lead interests. 
In February 1999, the department's 
Air Pollution Control Program nego- 
tiated an amended consent decree 
with the Doe Run Company. This 
comprehensive document specifies 



construction schedules, engineering 
performance criteria, process weight 
limits, record-keeping requirements, 
contingency control measures, stipu- 
lated penalties and dispute resolu- 
tion. This action was filed in Iron 
County Court in August 1999. The 
new agreement required a formal SIP 
revision. The Missouri Air Conser- 
vation Commission heard this revi- 
sion on April 27, 2000, and subse- 
quently adopted it on May 25, 2000. 
The new consent decree was submit- 
ted to the U.S. EPA on July 21, 2000, 
as an amendment to the SIP. 

Air monitors near the Doe Run- 
Glover Smelter have not shown a vi- 
olation of the NAAQS since the SIP 
controls were installed Dec. 31, 1996. 
The department had preliminary 
meetings with Glover to discuss re- 
designation of the area to attainment. 
A redesignation request for this area 
will be developed in 2001. 



Bixby Redesignation 
to Attainment 

The U.S. EPA announced the redesig- 
nation of the lead nonattainment 
area in western Iron County on Dec. 
18, 2000. Redesignation means that 
this area now officially complies with 
the NAAQS for lead. The Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources 
submitted a plan for maintaining 
compliance with the lead standard to 
the U.S. EPA May 12, 2000. The main- 
tenance plan outlined steps to ensure 
permanent and enforceable emission 
reductions at the Doe Run Resource 
Recycling Facility near Bixby. The 
plan submitted by the state also re- 
quires operation of a monitoring net- 
work and adherence to a manual of 
best work practices. Finally, the plan 
includes a commitment by the state to 
submit a revised maintenance plan 
eight years after the redesignation 
date. That revised plan must demon- 
strate that the area will remain in 
compliance with the lead standard 
for another 10 years. 



Doe Run Herculaneum Smelter - #7 Broad Street Site 




Doe Run Buick Smelter -#1 Site 




Average Quarterly Concentrations of Lead in 
Ambient Air Near Lead Smelters in Missouri 

Since Missouri is the chief lead-mining district in the 
nation, with several smelters, the department conducts 
ambient monitoring for lead. Developed by the U.S. EPA, 
the health standard for lead defines the maximum safe level 
for human exposure to this otherwise useful metal. The 
National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 
lead is 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter, averaged from all 
the monitor filters collected in one-quarter of the year. 
Currently, the Herculaneum smelter is the only one regis- 
tering exceedances of the airborne standard. 



Doe Run Glover Smelter - #5 Big Creek Site 




- 23 



Fine Particulate Matter 

PM2.5 is primarily generated from 
combustion sources. It can be emit- 
ted directly as particulate, or it can be 
formed from gases that are emitted, 
which combine or condense in the at- 
mosphere to make particles. Sulfur 
or nitrogen compounds are likely to 
be significant in different areas of the 
country. In addition to the ambient 
monitoring currently being con- 
ducted, the department plans in the 
future to conduct sampling that could 
be analyzed for specific compounds 
or species of compounds. This would 
help determine what types of sources 



are most responsible for PM2.5 levels 
in different parts of the state. 

The time schedule for the PM2.5 stan- 
dard to be implemented and attained 
will take several years because a new 
monitoring system for this type of 
pollution must be created. Based on 
U.S. EPA guidance, Missouri has de- 
signed a network of 30 monitors. By 
the end of 1999, 20 monitoring sites 
were in operation. The U.S. EPA will 
designate area attainment by 2003 
based on three years of gathered data 
beginning in 2000. 



1999 - 


2000 PM 


2.5 Data Summary 




24-Hr Std = 65 ug/m 3 , 98th Percentile 




Annual Mean Std = 15.0 ug/m 3 




Maximum Values 


Annual Mean 


Mean 


Site Name 


1999 


2000 


1999 


2000 


99/00 


West Alton 


43.7 


35.2 


14.4 


14.9 


14.6 


Margaretta 


49.4 


41.8 


15.3 


14.9 


15.1 


Blair Street 


64.5 


45.2 


17.3 


16.3 


16.8 


South Broadway 




42.3 




15.8 


15.8 


Second and Mound 


29.0 


43.3 




15.7 


15.7 


Florissant Valley 


46.9 


37.7 


14.6 


14.3 


14.5 


Clayton 


46.7 


51.0 


15.2 


15.1 


15.2 


Arnold 


46.5 


34.8 


15.2 


14.7 


15.0 


Liberty 


28.9 


32.8 


11.2 


11.0 


11.1 


North Kansas City 


37.3 


39.5 


12.2 


13.1 


12.7 


Sugar Creek 


36.2 


37.3 


11.8 


12.6 


12.2 


Locust 


34.9 


41.9 


14.0 


14.4 


14.2 


Richards Gebaur-S 


30.1 


40.9 


11.6 


11.8 


11.7 


4928 Main Street 




40.4 




12.7 


12.7 


Eldorado Springs 


31.2 


37.3 


11.3 


11.5 


11.4 


Mark Twain State Park 


38.9 


34.5 


11.1 


11.0 


11.1 


Ste. Genevieve 


42.1 


37.0 


13.8 


15.2 


14.5 


SW MO State University 35.0 


42.7 


12.2 


12.3 


12.3 


Mountain View 


50.2 


37.2 


13.0 


13.4 


13.2 


St. Joseph 


30.8 


31.9 


12.5 


11.8 


12.2 


Carthage Stone 


37.7 


31.3 


13.1 


13.2 


13.2 


units = micrograms per cubic meter 











eeping Country Air Cle 



A quick glance at this report 
might lead readers to believe 
that air quality is only a 
metropolitan issue. Air pollution is 
often associated with smoggy cities 
filled with smoke-puffing cars and 
soot-spewing factories. While many 
of our efforts do focus on keeping air 
in Kansas City and St. Louis clean 
and safe, the Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program also works diligently with 
outstate areas of Missouri to maintain 
pristine air in our rural areas. 

Open Burning 

Throughout the last century, trash 
collection and removal services have 
been difficult to come by in many 
rural areas. As a result, generations of 
Missourians have resorted to burning 
their trash. Now most, if not all, 
areas of Missouri have access to 
affordable, convenient methods of 
trash disposal. However, many 
Missourians still rely on open 
burning to dispose of their trash 
because that's the way generations 
before them have done it. 

Unfortunately, we now know that 
open burning of household trash can 
produce levels of certain toxic chemi- 
cals higher than a well-controlled 
municipal waste incinerator burning 
the trash of tens of thousands of 
homes, according to a recent study 
conducted by the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA). 

Lower combustion temperatures and 
inadequate air supply result in high 
levels of dangerous emissions being 
produced. The incomplete burning 
of household trash can produce 



chemicals such as dioxins and furans. 
Although the effects of these chemi- 
cals on humans are still unknown, 
clinical studies on animals have 
linked dioxins to cancer, dysfunction 
and even developmental abnormali- 
ties. High levels of dioxin can also 
cause a skin condition known as chlo- 
racne. Common items such as paper 
and plastic products and some food 
items may release these chemicals 
when burned. 

Because of these harmful effects, the 
department regulates many types of 
open burning. Waste generated by a 
business, trade, industry or any 
demolition may not be burned. This 
includes paper, cardboard boxes, 
pallets, tires, rubber products, 
hazardous materials, styrofoam, plas- 
tics, petroleum-based products and 
treated wood. Asbestos-containing 
materials also cannot be burned. For 
more information on open burning 
regulations, contact the department's 
Air Pollution Control Program at 
(573) 751-4817, or visit our Web site at 
www.dnr.state.mo.us/ air.htm. 

Several alternatives are available. 
According to Missouri state law, 
"each city and each county or a 
combination of cities and counties 
shall provide individually or collec- 
tively for the collection and disposal 
of solid wastes for those areas within 
its boundaries that are to be served 
by the solid waste management 
system; shall be responsible for 
implementing their approved plan 
required by section 260.220 as it 
relates to the storage, collection, 
transportation, processing and 
disposal of their solid wastes." 



However, these requirements are 
relaxed in some rural areas of 
Missouri. Residents of rural areas 
may choose to participate in a "Green 
Box" program. This alternative can 
provide for a location where local 
residents can bring their residential 
waste to a container without being 
subject to transfer station permitting 
requirements. Most Missouri resi- 
dents also have access to commercial 
trash hauling services or may, for a 
fee, take their wastes to a permitted 
transfer station or landfill for proper 
disposal. Contact your local Solid 
Waste Management District for more 
information or contact the Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources' Solid 
Waste Management Program at (573) 
751-5401 for more information on 
alternatives to open burning. 

Concentrated Animal 
Feeding Operations 

Over the last few decades the number 
of Missouri farms has decreased. 
However, as the number of farms has 
decreased, the sizes of these farms 
have increased. Fewer farms and 
greater farm size means that produc- 
tion is becoming more concentrated. 

Looking at just a few Missouri coun- 
ties shows how quickly things can 
change. Nationally, Sullivan County 
was ranked 736 in terms of hog and 
pork production in 1992. By 1997, it 
jumped to 6th largest hog and pork 
producer in the United States (from 
15,000 hogs and pigs in 1992 to more 
than 529,000 hogs and pigs in 1997). 
Mercer County leapt from 114 to 13 
on this list. Vernon County went 
from 201 to 89 and Gentry County 
from 416 to 98. 



-25- 



Changes of this magnitude place 
tremendous strains on the environ- 
ment. Individual farms can become 
quite large. Many people begin to 
perceive these operations as factories, 
rather than farms, and these factories 
may evoke negative images. 

Until recently this change in Missouri 
agriculture occurred without any air 
regulations. Farming has traditionally 
been exempt from air regulations to 
allow farmers the right to farm their 
own land. This right is especially 
important as urban areas encroach 
upon rural areas and people are 
exposed to new sights, sounds and 
odors. However, in the last decade 
this situation has reversed and large 
farms are suddenly appearing and 
encroaching upon already rural areas. 
These large farms concentrate the 
number of animals and the odors 
associated with these animals and 
their waste. 

In the past, odor control has 
depended on individual management 
practices. Odor control practices that 
work for a few animals don't always 
work for 1,000, 10,000 or 1000,000 
animals. 

The Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program recently began working to 
control odor emissions from large 
Concentrated Animal Feeding Opera- 
tions (CAFOs). Missouri's largest 
CAFOs are defined as Class IA and 
have animal populations starting at 
4,900 head of dairy cows; 17,500 head 
of finishing hogs; or 210,000 laying 



hens. Missouri has 20 Class I A 
CAFOs. Many of these operations are 
considerably larger than the 
minimum necessary to qualify as a 
Class IACAFO. 

The department's Air Pollution 
Control Program amended its regula- 
tions in 1999 to remove the odor 
exemption for Class IA CAFOs 
because odors generate a number of 
complaints. More than 100 odorous 
compounds have been identified as 
coming from large hog CAFOs. The 
department's odor regulation now 
requires all existing and new Class IA 
CAFOs to submit an odor control 
plan to the department. This plan 
outlines how the operation will 
manage odor. 

Existing CAFOs will have to imple- 
ment their plans by Jan. 1, 2002. New 
CAFOs must have approved odor 
plans prior to operation. In addition, 
the department's odor regulation 
establishes an odor performance stan- 
dard beginning Jan. 1, 2002. This 
performance standard is measured at 
the operations' boundaries. Opera- 
tions exceeding that standard are in 
violation of the regulation and subject 
to fines and corrective measures. 

Odors from CAFOs can come from 
several areas, but they primarily 
result from animal housing and waste 
disposal. Waste storage and disposal 
are often cited as among the worst 
odor generators. Open storage of 
waste in lagoons and aerial spraying 
of waste on fields are visible signs of 
the amount of waste generated. 



Building odors can also be strong 
depending upon how the waste is 
managed in the building. 

Well-planned building and waste 
storage designs, management prac- 
tices and controls can be 
implemented on CAFOs to reduce 
odor. The problem the department 
now faces is determining how to 
address odors at existing CAFOs that 
were not designed with odor control 
in mind. 

Odor emissions are difficult to 
control. Targeting one or two 
compounds may not be sufficient to 
change the perceived odor and 
controlling all the compounds may be 
impossible. Odor control at these 
operations requires a broader 
approach. 

Rather than mandating specific 
controls to be implemented at all 
facilities, the department's Air Pollu- 
tion Control Program regulations 
require each Class IA CAFO owner to 
evaluate odor control options and 
implement those that make sense for 
his or her operation. This regulatory 
approach is designed to accommo- 
date the differences in animal types 
and operations. 

Compliance with the odor perform- 
ance standard begins Jan. 1, 2002. 
Class IA CAFOs have been submit- 
ting their odor control plans to the 
department's Air Pollution Control 
Program and technical reviews are 
under way. Approved odor control 
plans should be implemented in 2001. 



- 27 - 



Air Pollution Information 
on the Internet 

There is a wealth of information about air quality issues on the Inter- 
net. You may find some of the following World Wide Web addresses 
helpful: 

MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Air Pollution Control Program (www.dnr.state.mo.us/ deq/ apcp) 

General Department Information (www.dnr.state.mo.us) 

Technical Assistance Program (www.dnr.state.mo. us /deq/ tap) 

The complete Missouri Air Law 
(www.moga.state.mo.us/ statutes/ c643.htm) 

Department of Natural Resources - Air Quality Monitoring 
(www.dnr.state.mo.us/ deq/ esp) 

Code of State Regulations (mosl.sos.state.mo.us/csr/csr.htm) 

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 

EPA Region VII (Kansas City) (www.epa.gov/region07/) 
Office of Air and Radiation (www.epa.gov/oar/) 
Air Links - EPA Air Quality Publications (www.epa.gov/airlinks/) 

OTHER AIR QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS: 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (www.cleanair-stlouis.com/) 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) 
( w w w.marc . org / environment / heartsky.htm) 

American Lung Association (www.lungusa.org/) 

Air and Waste Management Association (www.awma.org/) 

Missouri Department of Health (www.health.state.mo.us/) 



DAILY AIR QUALITY FORECASTS: 

Kansas City (www.marc.org/ airquality/ airqual.htm#skycast) 
St. Louis (www.cleanair-stlouis.com/ 4cast.htm) 



bout The Air Pollution Control Progr 



_ 



The mission of the Department 
of Natural Resources' Air 
Pollution Control Program is 
"to maintain purity of the air 
resources of the state to protect the 
health, general welfare and physical 
property of the people, maximum 
employment and the full industrial 
development of the state/' The 
program serves the public with 
technology, planning, enforcement, 
permitting, financial and information 
services to achieve this mission. 

Technical Support 

The program's staff looks at the 
quality of the air in Missouri using 
chemistry, meteorology, mathematics 
and computer modeling. Staff 
members research the sources and 
effects of air pollution, collecting and 
maintaining an annual inventory of 
sources that give off air pollution. In 
conjunction with the Department of 
Natural Resources' Environmental 
Services Program and four local 
agencies, the Air Pollution Control 
Program staff designs and 
coordinates an air-monitoring 
network and examines monitoring 
data. The network provides air 
quality data from more than 40 
locations around the state. Using the 
monitoring data and other data on 
source emissions and the weather, the 
staff runs computer models of the 
atmosphere to predict air quality. 

Planning 

The program's staff develops rules 
and plans designed to protect and 
improve Missouri's air quality. 
Public participation is a vital part of 
the cooperative process of developing 



guidelines and regulations. The staff 
works with businesses, federal, state 
and local government agencies, 
environmental groups and the public 
to exchange ideas and information on 
clean air issues with advisory groups, 
workgroups and workshops. 

The staff works closely with EPA as 
part of the national effort to improve 
air quality through the Clean Air Act. 
The staff research and study complex 
environmental issues to develop air 
pollution control strategies that will 
allow Missouri's progress toward 
achieving and maintaining healthy 
air quality improvements. These air 
pollution control strategies are 
included in the state implementation 
plan (SIP) to control specific 
pollutants. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (see p. 31) 
approves the state implementation 
plan and rule actions after they have 
gone through a public hearing 
process. When the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission adopts 
rules, they become effective through 
publication in the Missouri State Code 
of Regulations. The state implemen- 
tation plan and associated rules 
adopted by the Missouri Air Conser- 
vation Commission are submitted to 
EPA for inclusion in the federally 
approved state plan. 

Permits 

The program's staff reviews 
construction permit applications of 
new or modified emission sources to 
make sure that facilities minimize the 
release of air contaminants and will 
meet the requirements of the state 
and federal law and regulations. 



Operating permit applications, 
similar to business licenses, are also 
received and issued. Operating 
permits staff identifies all the air 
pollution control requirements of a 
source of air pollution. 

Enforcement 

The program, through the 
department's regional offices, 
responds to complaints about air 
quality and help businesses comply 
with various federal, state and local 
rules. Staff conducts routine site 
inspections and oversees the testing 
of smokestacks, asbestos removal, 
gasoline vapor recovery equipment 
and other sources of air pollution. 
When a source violates an air quality 
requirement, the staff works with the 
facility to correct the problem and 
may take additional action, including 
the assessment of penalties necessary 
to obtain compliance with the 
requirement. Cases that cannot be 
resolved are referred to the Missouri 
Attorney General's office through the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission. 

Administration 

The program's staff provides 
budgeting, procurement, public 
information and personnel services. 
The staff also provides liaisons for the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission, EPA, the Missouri 
Department of Health, local air 
agencies in Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield, the 
American Lung Association and the 
news media. 



— 29 — 



2002 Revenue by Source 



Fees 
$10,213,070 



Fede 
$2,976,114 



venue 
|,926 



Total: $13,892,110 



2002 Revenue by Source 

The Air Pollution Control Program 
receives funds from three sources: 
general tax revenue approved by the 
Missouri General Assembly, federal 
funds from EPA and four types of 
fees collected by the program. Since 
1972, the program collected fees from 
businesses seeking permits to build 
new or modify existing emission 
sources. Since 1984, the state collected 
a fee to test the emissions of 1.2 
million motor vehicles in the city of 
St. Louis and in Franklin, Jefferson, 
St. Charles and St. Louis counties. In 
2000, an enhanced inspection 
program was initiated in all of these 
counties except Franklin, which still 
uses the basic test. Since 1993, the 
program collected an emission fee 
from air pollution sources under the 
Missouri Air Conservation Law. Since 
1989, the program collected fees to 



ensure the safe removal of asbestos; a 
cancer-causing substance of 
combined materials once used to 
insulate buildings. Funds received 
by the program are shown in the 
table above. 

Local Agencies 

A city or county may have its own air 
agency under two conditions: the city 
must be able to enforce its rules and 
its rules must be as strict as the 
state's. Local agencies issue permits, 
maintain their own monitoring 
networks and may enforce asbestos- 
removal laws. The local agencies are 
partially funded by EPA through the 
Department of Natural Resources. 
Four local governments in Missouri 
practice regional control over air 
pollution: Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield. 



— 30 — 



Missouri Air Conservation Commission 



Created by the Missouri General Assembly in 1965, the Missouri Air Con- 
servation Commission has seven members appointed by the governor. 
The commission carries out the Missouri Air Conservation Law (Chap- 
ter 643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary duty of the commission is 
to achieve and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards estab- 
lished by the U.S. EPA. When the quality of the air meets these standards, an 
area is said to be in attainment. If monitors detect too much of one pollutant, 
however, the area is a nonattainment area for that pollutant. 

Members serve four-year terms, and the commission meets at least nine times 
per year. All meetings are open to the public and comments are welcome. Most 
meetings include public hearings where rule actions, state implementation 
plans and other matters are heard. 

At meetings, the commission adopts, amends and rescinds rules; hears appeals 
of enforcement orders and permit conditions; initiates legal action to enforce 
rules; assigns duties to local air pollution control agencies; classifies regions as 
attainment or nonattainment areas and approves plans to meet national stan- 
dards in nonattainment areas. 

Notices of public hearings are published in the public-notice sections of these 
newspapers: Columbia Daily Tribune, The Kansas City Star, Kirksville Daily Express, 
Poplar Bluff Daily American Republic, Springfield News-Leader, St. Joseph News Press 
and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. They are also published in the Missouri Register. 
To be placed on a mailing list to receive notice of public hearings and meetings, 
you may contact the Department of Natural Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program at (573) 751-4817. 

Information on public hearings and Missouri Air Conservation Commission 

meetings is also available on our home page at 
(www.dnr.state.mo.us/ dnr/ apcp). 




Bob Holden 

Governor 
State of Missouri 



2000 Missouri 
Air Conservation 
Commission 

David Zimmerman 

Chair 

Michael Foresman 

Vice-chair 

Harriet Beard 
Frank Beller 
Joanne Collins 
Andy Farmer 
Barry Kayes 



Steve Mahfood 

Director 
Department of 
Natural Resources 



John Young 
Director 
Department of Natural 
Resources' Division of 
Environmental Quality 



Roger D. Randolph 
Director 
Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution 
Control Program 



MACC members, left to right: Frank 
Beller, Harriet Beard, Andy Farmer, 
Joanne Collins, David Zimmermann, 
and Barry Kayes. Not pictured: Michael 
Foresman. 



-31- 



Down the Road 




Photographs provided by David A. Castillon, Ph.D., Geomorphologist. 



Regional Haze: The U.S. EPA re- 
cently finalized a rule to improve 
visibility in the Class I Wilder- 
ness Areas of the United States. 
The pollutants that obscure visi- 
bility are called "haze." Missouri 
has two Class I areas: Hercules 
Glade Wilderness Area in Taney 
County and Mingo Wilderness 
Area in Stoddard and Wayne 
counties. Some pollutants that 
contribute to haze, mostly fine 
particles, are directly released 
into the atmosphere by a variety 
of activities including electric 
power generation, industry, mo- 
bile sources, agricultural burning 
and forestry burning. Sulfates 
and nitrates, both products of 
fossil fuel combustion, contribute 
to haze. In Missouri, sulfates are 
likely to be a dominant source of 
visibility impairment. Improve- 
ments in visibility are expected 
to occur over many decades with 
the goal of reducing haze in the 
Class I areas to natural back- 
ground conditions in 60 years. 
The photographs on this page re- 
flect the air quality differences at 
Hercules Glade on good and 
poor air quality days. 

Eight-Hour Ozone Standard: 

Due to court rulings, a new stan- 
dard adopted in 1997 to reduce 
ground-level ozone stalled in 
1999. However, the U.S. 
Supreme Court agreed to hear an 
appeal of the case in 2000. A de- 
cision is expected in spring 2001. 
The new ozone standard, known 
as the eight-hour standard, 
would reduce allowable ozone 
concentrations from 0.12 parts 
per million averaged over a one- 
hour period to a standard of 0.08 
parts per million averaged over 
an eight-hour period. 



■ 



000 Rules Upda 



- 



In 2000, the Missouri Air Conservation Commission 
adopted 25 rule actions. A list of rules is available at 
mosl.sos.state.mo.us/ csr/ csr.htm. The following list 
highlights a few of the most significant rules adopted: 

10 CSR 10-6.020 Definitions and 
Common Reference Tables 

This rule amendment adopted regulatory language 
improvements developed through the efforts of the 
construction permit workgroup that streamlined the 
permitting process. As a result of this amendment, the 
rule now provides the definition for criteria pollutant and 
contains regulatory language for determining creditability 
of emission increases and decreases. The definition for the 
St. Louis carbon monoxide nonattainment area was also 
deleted since the area was redesignated to attainment for 
carbon monoxide. 



10 CSR 10-5.380 Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection 

This rule action amended the rule to incorporate state 
legislation, Senate Bill 19, that was signed into law in July 
1999. The amendment removed a penalty for the 
contractor that applied when motorists wait an excessive 
amount of time for an emissions test, incorporated a tran- 
sitional program leading up to the permanent enhanced 
inspection and maintenance program and provided 
inspection program options for Franklin County residents. 



10 CSR 10-6.350 Emissions Limitations and 
Emissions Trading of Oxides of Nitrogen 

This new rule reduces transported emissions of oxides of 
nitrogen (NOx) which negatively affect the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area. The rule incorporates an emissions 
trading program to reduce emissions of NOx from elec- 
trical generating units within the state of Missouri. This 
rule action was a required part of the department's attain- 
ment date extension request for the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area. 



10 CSR 10-6.070 New Source Performance Regulations, 
10 CSR 10-6.075 Maximum Achievable Control 
Technology Regulations and 10 CSR 10-6.080 Emission 
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants 

These rule amendments incorporate updates to federal 
regulations that are referenced in these rules. The state is 
required to adopt these updates and enforce them as part 
of the state's operating permits program. 



10 CSR 10-2.205 Control of Emissions from 
Aerospace Manufacture and Rework Facilities 

This new rule reduces volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions from aerospace manufacture and rework facili- 
ties located in the Kansas City ozone maintenance area. It 
contains a list of VOC coatings operations used in the aero- 
space manufacture and rework industry and VOC content 
limits and record-keeping requirements for these opera- 
tions. The rulemaking is required for compliance with the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and was identified in 
the Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Plan as adopted on 
Feb. 3, 1998. 



10 CSR 10-5.375 Motor Vehicle 
Emission Inspection Waiver 

The amendment to this rule modifies the Franklin County 
emission inspection waiver procedure by removing the 
waiver time constraint and replacing references to 
Missouri State Highway Patrol licensed inspectors and 
mechanics with references to Qualified Repair Technicians. 



10 CSR 10-6.120 Restriction of Emissions of Lead 
From Specific Lead Smelter-Refinery Installations 

This rule amendment incorporated a new emission limit 
for the main stack and two baghouse stacks at the Doe Run 
primary lead smelter located in Herculaneum, Missouri. 
This amendment was incorporated to help the area attain 
the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead. At 
the same time, the name of the smelter located in Glover 
was changed to reflect a change in ownership. 



33 



State Implementation 
Plan/Air Quality Plans 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program submits rules to the 
Missouri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion and writes the State Implemen- 
tation Plan (SIP) and air quality 
plans that indicate how Missouri will 
achieve and maintain the federal 
standards for pollutants. 

The SIP is the primary method for 
achieving the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards for compliance 
with the Clean Air Act. Distinct air 
quality plans are developed for spe- 
cific air pollutants. Whenever con- 
centrations of one of these pollutants 
exceed federal standards, a plan is 
developed to bring the pollutant into 
compliance. Plan development in- 
cludes a new inventory of emission 
levels, computer modeling of emis- 
sions' sources and the effects of emis- 
sion sources, control strategies and 
regulatory requirements or rules. 

Another type of air quality plan, 
called a State Plan, also involves an 
emission inventory, controls and 
rules, but addresses emission source 
types as well as specific pollutants. 

The Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission adopted the following 
five plan actions in 2000: 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Bixby, Mo.* (Western Iron 
County Lead Nonattainment Area) 

This plan revision provided back- 
ground, data and justification for re- 
designating the lead nonattainment 
area in western Iron County to attain- 
ment for lead. The revision included 
the new plan to control lead emis- 
sions from the Doe Run Resource Re- 
cycling Facility near Bixby. 

Missouri State Implementation Plan 
Revision (St. Louis Local Code Up- 
date and Administrative Rule Re- 
moval) 

This revision to the Missouri SIP re- 
placed the St. Louis City ordinance 



open burning and incinerator require- 
ments that were in the SIP with more 
recently updated requirements. In 
addition, this revision removed rule 
10 CSR 10-1.010 General Organiza- 
tion from the SIP because the require- 
ments in that rule are administrative. 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Glover, Mo.* (eastern 
Iron County Lead Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan revision incorporated a 
modified consent decree that recog- 
nizes the Doe Run Resource Corpora- 
tion as the owner and operator of the 
lead smelting facility located near 
Glover as of Aug. 30, 1998. Doe Run 
had been operating the smelter since 
that date, and in the modified consent 
decree Doe Run accepts the condi- 
tions of an original consent decree 
with four minor additions. 

Attainment Demonstration Plan* 
(St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan action revised the attain- 
ment demonstration modeling and 
analyses to incorporate corrections to 
the 1996 base-year emissions inven- 
tory. This revision was required by 
the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency in order to demonstrate that 
the St. Louis area attains the one-hour 
ozone standard. 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Herculaneum, Mo.* (Her- 
culaneum, Mo. Lead Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan action amended the plan to 
control lead emissions at the Doe Run 
Herculaneum facility. It includes a 
comprehensive emission inventory, 
technical modeling analysis that 
demonstrates attainment, and a con- 
sent decree and work practice manual 
that makes the emission control proj- 
ects enforceable. This plan action is 
required by the federal Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990. 

*These plans are part of the Missouri 
State Implementation Plan 



-34- 



■ 



000 Rules Upda 



- 



In 2000, the Missouri Air Conservation Commission 
adopted 25 rule actions. A list of rules is available at 
mosl.sos.state.mo.us/ csr/ csr.htm. The following list 
highlights a few of the most significant rules adopted: 

10 CSR 10-6.020 Definitions and 
Common Reference Tables 

This rule amendment adopted regulatory language 
improvements developed through the efforts of the 
construction permit workgroup that streamlined the 
permitting process. As a result of this amendment, the 
rule now provides the definition for criteria pollutant and 
contains regulatory language for determining creditability 
of emission increases and decreases. The definition for the 
St. Louis carbon monoxide nonattainment area was also 
deleted since the area was redesignated to attainment for 
carbon monoxide. 



10 CSR 10-5.380 Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection 

This rule action amended the rule to incorporate state 
legislation, Senate Bill 19, that was signed into law in July 
1999. The amendment removed a penalty for the 
contractor that applied when motorists wait an excessive 
amount of time for an emissions test, incorporated a tran- 
sitional program leading up to the permanent enhanced 
inspection and maintenance program and provided 
inspection program options for Franklin County residents. 



10 CSR 10-6.350 Emissions Limitations and 
Emissions Trading of Oxides of Nitrogen 

This new rule reduces transported emissions of oxides of 
nitrogen (NOx) which negatively affect the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area. The rule incorporates an emissions 
trading program to reduce emissions of NOx from elec- 
trical generating units within the state of Missouri. This 
rule action was a required part of the department's attain- 
ment date extension request for the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area. 



10 CSR 10-6.070 New Source Performance Regulations, 
10 CSR 10-6.075 Maximum Achievable Control 
Technology Regulations and 10 CSR 10-6.080 Emission 
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants 

These rule amendments incorporate updates to federal 
regulations that are referenced in these rules. The state is 
required to adopt these updates and enforce them as part 
of the state's operating permits program. 



10 CSR 10-2.205 Control of Emissions from 
Aerospace Manufacture and Rework Facilities 

This new rule reduces volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions from aerospace manufacture and rework facili- 
ties located in the Kansas City ozone maintenance area. It 
contains a list of VOC coatings operations used in the aero- 
space manufacture and rework industry and VOC content 
limits and record-keeping requirements for these opera- 
tions. The rulemaking is required for compliance with the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and was identified in 
the Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Plan as adopted on 
Feb. 3, 1998. 



10 CSR 10-5.375 Motor Vehicle 
Emission Inspection Waiver 

The amendment to this rule modifies the Franklin County 
emission inspection waiver procedure by removing the 
waiver time constraint and replacing references to 
Missouri State Highway Patrol licensed inspectors and 
mechanics with references to Qualified Repair Technicians. 



10 CSR 10-6.120 Restriction of Emissions of Lead 
From Specific Lead Smelter-Refinery Installations 

This rule amendment incorporated a new emission limit 
for the main stack and two baghouse stacks at the Doe Run 
primary lead smelter located in Herculaneum, Missouri. 
This amendment was incorporated to help the area attain 
the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead. At 
the same time, the name of the smelter located in Glover 
was changed to reflect a change in ownership. 



33 



State Implementation 
Plan/Air Quality Plans 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program submits rules to the 
Missouri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion and writes the State Implemen- 
tation Plan (SIP) and air quality 
plans that indicate how Missouri will 
achieve and maintain the federal 
standards for pollutants. 

The SIP is the primary method for 
achieving the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards for compliance 
with the Clean Air Act. Distinct air 
quality plans are developed for spe- 
cific air pollutants. Whenever con- 
centrations of one of these pollutants 
exceed federal standards, a plan is 
developed to bring the pollutant into 
compliance. Plan development in- 
cludes a new inventory of emission 
levels, computer modeling of emis- 
sions' sources and the effects of emis- 
sion sources, control strategies and 
regulatory requirements or rules. 

Another type of air quality plan, 
called a State Plan, also involves an 
emission inventory, controls and 
rules, but addresses emission source 
types as well as specific pollutants. 

The Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission adopted the following 
five plan actions in 2000: 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Bixby, Mo.* (Western Iron 
County Lead Nonattainment Area) 

This plan revision provided back- 
ground, data and justification for re- 
designating the lead nonattainment 
area in western Iron County to attain- 
ment for lead. The revision included 
the new plan to control lead emis- 
sions from the Doe Run Resource Re- 
cycling Facility near Bixby. 

Missouri State Implementation Plan 
Revision (St. Louis Local Code Up- 
date and Administrative Rule Re- 
moval) 

This revision to the Missouri SIP re- 
placed the St. Louis City ordinance 



open burning and incinerator require- 
ments that were in the SIP with more 
recently updated requirements. In 
addition, this revision removed rule 
10 CSR 10-1.010 General Organiza- 
tion from the SIP because the require- 
ments in that rule are administrative. 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Glover, Mo.* (eastern 
Iron County Lead Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan revision incorporated a 
modified consent decree that recog- 
nizes the Doe Run Resource Corpora- 
tion as the owner and operator of the 
lead smelting facility located near 
Glover as of Aug. 30, 1998. Doe Run 
had been operating the smelter since 
that date, and in the modified consent 
decree Doe Run accepts the condi- 
tions of an original consent decree 
with four minor additions. 

Attainment Demonstration Plan* 
(St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan action revised the attain- 
ment demonstration modeling and 
analyses to incorporate corrections to 
the 1996 base-year emissions inven- 
tory. This revision was required by 
the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency in order to demonstrate that 
the St. Louis area attains the one-hour 
ozone standard. 

Control of Lead Emissions Plan for 
Doe Run - Herculaneum, Mo.* (Her- 
culaneum, Mo. Lead Nonattainment 
Area) 

This plan action amended the plan to 
control lead emissions at the Doe Run 
Herculaneum facility. It includes a 
comprehensive emission inventory, 
technical modeling analysis that 
demonstrates attainment, and a con- 
sent decree and work practice manual 
that makes the emission control proj- 
ects enforceable. This plan action is 
required by the federal Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990. 

*These plans are part of the Missouri 
State Implementation Plan 



-34- 



r Quality Informatio 



MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Air Pollution Control Program (573) 751-4817 

P.O. Box 176 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

Environmental Services Program (573) 526-3315 

Technical Assistance Program 1-800-361-4827 

General Department of Natural Resources' Information 1-800-334-6946 

Relay Missouri (for use by the hearing impaired) 1-800-735-2966 

Jefferson City Regional Office (573) 751-2729 

Kansas City Regional Office (816) 622-7000 

Northeast Regional Office (Macon) (660) 385-2129 

St. Louis Regional Office (314) 301-7100 

Southeast Regional Office (Poplar Bluff) (573) 840-9750 

Southwest Regional Office (Springfield) (417) 891-4300 

IN CASE OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY: 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Emergencies only 24 hours a day (573) 634-2436 

Emergency Response Office weekdays (573) 526-3315 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region VII (913) 551-7020 

National Response Center (A service of the U.S. government for reporting oil and chemical spills) 1-800-424-8802 

CHEMTREC (A service of the chemical industry for reporting chemical spills, leaks and fires) 1-800-424-9300 

OTHER AIR QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS: 

Missouri Department of Health (573) 751-6400 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (314) 645-5505 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) (816)-474-4240 

American Lung Association of Eastern Missouri (314) 645-5505 

American Lung Association of Western Missouri (816) 842-5242 

Kansas City Health Department (816) 513-6314 

City of St. Louis - Division of Air Pollution Control (314) 613-7300 

St. Louis County - Department of Health (314) 615-8923 

Springfield-Greene County - Air Pollution Control Authority (417) 864-1662 



-35- 



Glossary 



Attainment: The designation given to an area that meets 
all National Ambient Air Quality Standards. 

Carbon monoxide (CO): A poisonous gas that is odorless, 
colorless and tasteless. At low levels it causes impaired 
vision and manual dexterity, weakness and mental dull- 
ness. At high levels it may cause vomiting, fast pulse and 
breathing followed by a slow pulse and breathing, then 
collapse and unconsciousness. 

Exceedance: An exceedance occurs when levels of a certain 
pollutant are higher than those deemed safe by the federal 
government. 

Inhalable particles (PMio and PM2.5): Abroad class of 
particles sometimes simply referred to as "soot." One of 
the "criteria pollutants," PM10 particles are 10 microns or 
smaller in diameter. The pollutant increases the likelihood 
of chronic or acute respiratory illness. It also causes diffi- 
culty in breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory or 
cardiovascular illness and lung damage. In addition it 
causes decreased ability to defend against foreign mate- 
rials. New laws have just been passed regulating PM2.5, an 
even smaller and more harmful class of fine particles less 
than 2.5 microns in diameter. Missouri is beginning to 
monitor its concentrations. 

Lead (Pb): Airborne lead appears as dust-like particles 
ranging from light gray to black. Low doses may damage 
the central nervous system of fetuses and children, causing 
seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In 
children and adults, lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and decreased fitness, and it damages the kidneys, liver 
and blood-forming organs. It is suspected of causing high 
blood pressure and heart disease. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, comas and death. 

Missouri Air Conservation Commission: The governor 
appoints this seven-member group. The commission 
carries out the Missouri Air Conservation Law (Chapter 
643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary duty of 
the commission is to help Missouri achieve the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. Environ- 
mental Protection Agency. 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): 

Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency that limit the amount of six air pollutants allowed 
in outside air. These six are carbon monoxide, inhalable 
particles, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide. 
The limits are based on what is safe for humans to breathe. 



Nitrogen dioxide (N02): A poisonous, reddish-brown to 
dark brown gas with an irritating odor. It can cause lung 
inflammation and can lower resistance to infections like 
bronchitis and pneumonia. It is suspected of causing acute 
respiratory disease in children. 

Nonattainment area: A region in which air monitors detect 
more of a pollutant than is allowed by the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. Environ- 
mental Protection Agency. The U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency may designate a region as a "nonattain- 
ment area" for that pollutant. 

Ozone (03): Three atoms of oxygen; a colorless gas with a 
pleasant odor at low concentrations. The layer of ozone in 
the atmosphere protects the earth from the sun's harmful 
rays. Ground-level ozone is a summertime hazard 
produced when hydrocarbons from car exhaust and other 
fumes mix in the presence of sunlight with oxides of 
nitrogen from power plants and other sources. Ozone is 
more easily recognized in smog, a transparent summer 
haze that hangs over urban areas. The result is a gas that 
aggravates respiratory illness, makes breathing difficult 
and damages breathing tissues. Victims include people 
with lung disease, the elderly, children and adults who 
exercise outside. 

Ozone Violation: Four or more exceedances of the federal 
ozone standard occurring in a three-year period at the 
same monitoring site. 

Reformulated Gasoline (RFG): A fuel blend designed to 
reduce air toxins and volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions by decreasing the amount of toxic compounds 
such as benzene, lowering the evaporation rate and 
increasing the amount of oxygenate blended with the fuel. 

Smelter: A facility that uses chemical and physical 
processes to turn metallic ores (such as lead sulfide 
concentrates) into sellable pure metal and alloy products. 

State Implementation Plan (SIP): A plan submitted by the 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources to the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency for complying with national air 
quality standards. Each plan concerns one air pollutant 
for one nonattainment area. 

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A colorless gas with a strong, suffo- 
cating odor. Causes irritation of the throat and lungs and 
difficulty in breathing. It also causes aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 



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